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Appendix 1: Chronology of the EU 
 

 

European Community

The world

1945

End of World War II

 

 

UN Charter signed

 

1946

Churchill's Zurich speech calls for United States of Europe

Iron Curtain descends on Eastern Europe

1947

Marshall Aid begins

India and Pakistan gain independence

1948

Berlin blockade

State of Israel founded

1949

Council of Europe founded 

North Atlantic Treaty signed 

Comecon formed

Mao establishes People's Republic of China

1950

Schuman Plan

Korean War starts

1951

Treaty of Paris creates ECSC

 

1952

EDC Treaty signed

 

1953

 

Korean War ends 

Stalin dies

1954

EDC collapses

Vietnam War begins 

Algerian revolt starts

1955

West Germany joins NATO 

Messina Conference

Warsaw Pact signed

1956

Anglo-French Suez Canal crisis 

Treaty of Rome creates EEC 

Euratom Treaty signed

Hungarian uprising crushed 1957 

Sputnik 1 (first spacecraft)launched

1958

 

Mao's Great Leap Forward (1958-61)

1959

 

Japanese GNP trebles over 8 years (1959-67)

1960

EFTA Convention signed

 

1961

Berlin Wall erected

USA joins Vietnam War

1962

CAP launched

Cuban missile crisis 

De Gaulle ends Algerian War 

1963

De Gaulle vetoes UK membership of EC 

Treaty of the Elysée

J.F. Kennedy assassinated

1964

 

 

1965

Empty chair crisis

 

1966

Luxembourg Compromise 

France partially withdraws from NATO

Cultural Revolution in China (1966-78)

1967

De Gaulle again vetoes UK

 

1968

Internal tariffs ended

'Prague Spring' crushed 

Martin Luther King murdered 1969 

Man lands on the moon

1970

 

 

1971

Common Fisheries Policy 

Birth of the Snake

Collapse of Bretton Woods system

1972

Norway rejects EEC

Nixon and Mao reopen US - China relations

1973

Accession of Denmark, Ireland and UK 

Death of the Snake

Yom Kippur War precipitates oil crisis 

USA withdraws from Vietnam

1974

 

Nixon resigns

1975

British referendum endorses membership 

European Regional Development Fund established 

Lomé Convention signed

 

1976

 

Mao Zedong dies

1977

 

 

1978

 

 

1979

First direct European elections 

EMS and ERM initiated

Egypt and Israel sign accord 

Ayatollah Khomeini replaces Shah in Iran 

soviet troops enter Afghanistan

1980

 

 

1981

Accession of Greece

Deployment of Pershing missiles in Europe

1982

 

Falklands War

1983

 

 

1984

Spinelli's draft Treaty on European Union 

Thatcher negotiates British rebate

 

1985

 

 

1986

Single European Act 

Accession of Spain and Portugal

Gorbachev initiates glasnost and perestroika

1987

 

Stockmarket crash

1988

 

Soviet troops withdraw from Afghanistan

1989

Berlin Wall falls

Collapse of communism in Eastern Europe 

Tiananmen Square massacre

1990

UK joins ERM 

German reunification

Break-up of Yugoslavia

1991

 

Soviet Union disintegrates 

War with Iraq over Kuwait

1992

Single market programme completed 

UK leaves ERM 

Maastricht Treaty; Danes reject it 

Switzerland rejects EEA

 

1993

Danes accept Maastricht at second attempt 

ERM collapses

 

1994

EEA comes into force Norway again rejects membership

Mandela becomes president of South Africa

1995

Accession of Austria, Finland and Sweden

Dayton Peace Accord in Yugoslavia

1996

Beef crisis 

EMU Stability Pact agreed

 

1997

UK government adopts Social Chapter 

Agenda 2000 plan for EU enlargement

Treaty of Amsterdam

Hong Kong returned to China 

Asian economic crisis

1998

Selection of 11 single currency countries

Greece joins ERM

Euro conversion rates fixed

 

1999

Launch of single currency

Commission resigns

 

2000

Nice IGC prepares for new treaty

 

2002

Euro becomes legal tender